2. Prepare the next five sections of your CCP: 1) Cris">

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1. Prepare a "fill in the blanks" news release to be included in your CCP

2. Prepare the next five sections of your CCP: 1) Crisis communication control center; 2) Equipment and supplies; 3) Pregathered information; 4) Key messages; 5) Web site.


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Chapter Fifteen

 


 

The Crisis Communications

 

Plan

 


 

Crisis Inventory

 

Before an organization can develop a crisis management plan or a crisis

 

communications plan, it must determine which crisis or crises the organization is most likely to face. A crisis communications plan?s usefulness

 

is directly associated with how specific it is to a particular type of crisis.

 

The workbook for this text takes the user through a step-by-step

 

process of developing the crisis communications plan. Although there are

 

several items in the plan that are mutual to all types of crises, varying

 

information is needed for each type of crisis for maximum effectiveness.

 

For example, a restaurant chain may decide that food poisoning and fire

 

are its most probable crises. If a food poisoning crisis occurs, the media

 

will want, and the public relations department should have, the following

 

items readily available and in its crisis communications plan: recipes, a

 

list of ingredients stocked, a list of vendors used, kitchen precautions and

 

procedures, names and contact numbers of chefs and all other personnel

 

handling food, and a list of medical experts for consultation and as

 

spokespersons.

 

If a fire occurs, the public relations department should have, in a specific

 

crisis communications plan, information about its evacuation procedures,

 

its policy on using nonflammable decor items (such as window coverings

 

and tablecloths), the floor plan of the structure, and fire experts for

 

spokespersons.

 

The following list enumerates common types of crises. There are, of

 

course, numerous others. Companies and organizations are advised

 

to consider the list carefully and add types of crises specific to their

 

operations.

 

Common Types of Crises

 

acquisition

 

age discrimination

 

alcohol abuse

 


 

bankruptcy

 

boycott

 

bribery

 


 

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302

 


 

The Crisis Communications Plan

 


 

chemical spill or leak

 

computer failure

 

computer hacking

 

contamination

 

data loss/theft

 

drug abuse

 

drug trafficking

 

earthquake

 

embezzlement

 

explosion

 

fatality

 

fire

 

flood

 

hacking

 

hurricane

 

kickbacks

 

kidnapping

 

lawsuits

 

layoffs

 

merger

 


 

murder

 

negative legislation

 

plant closing

 

product failure

 

protest demonstrations

 

racial issues

 

robbery

 

sexual discrimination

 

sexual harassment

 

strikes

 

suicide

 

takeover

 

tax problems

 

terrorism

 

tornado

 

toxic waste

 

transportation accident

 

transportation failure

 

workplace violence

 


 

Some crises will involve more than one of the types listed, such as workplace violence and fatality, or boycott and sexual discrimination.

 

Perhaps the involvement of the entire company or of representatives

 

from each department can help determine the crises the company is likely

 

to face. Then each unit?s selections could be compared and compiled into

 

a company-wide list. When done properly, this can be an effective

 

proactive employee relations program, a way of creating ?we-ness,? a

 

way of including all of the employees in the company?s decision making.

 

Janitors, executive assistants, blue-collar and white-collar workers,

 

midlevel executives, as well as top executives can have a say. After all,

 

each employee stands to suffer if the company should go under after the

 

most serious of crises. Furthermore, employees in each position

 

classification have unique perspectives on things that can go wrong.

 

Janitors are more aware of heating and cooling equipment, possible gas

 

leaks, and so on. Workers on an automobile assembly line know more

 

about the quality of cars than managers in carpeted offices.

 

However, if a company-wide crisis identification program is not

 

feasible, a meeting of key employees familiar with all facets of the

 

operation can determine the crises the company is likely to face. Such a

 

meeting should certainly include more than public relations staff members.

 

You do not want the company blaming the public relations staff for the

 

failure to recognize a possible crisis.

 


 

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303

 


 

Frequently, ascertaining probable crises can point out problems that

 

prevent crises from occurring. This is the primary reason for companywide involvement. The second best reason is being able to manage a crisis

 

once it occurs.

 

Every company and organization can experience many types of crises.

 

Two questions must be answered: (a) How likely is this crisis? and (b)

 

how devastating can the crisis be? Crisis communications plans should

 

be developed for all crises believed to be both most probable and most

 

devastating. To do this, the public relations department, with its key

 

executives, must take an inventory. Each possible crisis must be ranked

 

as follows:

 

0?Impossible; that is, the crisis has basically no chance of occurring.

 

1?Nearly impossible.

 

2?Remotely possible.

 

3?Possible.

 

4?Somewhat probable; has happened to similar companies.

 

5?Highly probable; may or may not have previously occurred in the

 

company, but warning signs are evident.

 

Each crisis also should be ranked according to its potential damage to

 

the company. The rankings in this category are as follows:

 

0?No damage, not a serious consequence.

 

1?Little damage, can be handled without much difficulty, not serious

 

enough for the media?s concern.

 

2?Some damage, a slight chance that the media will be involved.

 

3?Considerable damage, but still will not be a major media issue.

 

4?Considerable damage, would definitely be a major media issue.

 

5?Devastating, front-page news, could put company out of business.

 

For added security, when in doubt, rank a crisis in the next highest

 

category. For instance, Company Z determines that there are five crises

 

it could face: workplace violence, fire, protest demonstrations, negative

 

legislation, and tax problems. Each of these crises might be ranked as

 

shown in Figure 15.1.

 

Keep in mind that a crisis you determine to be unlikely simply because

 

it has never happened before can happen tomorrow. Both human nature

 

and mother nature are very unpredictable, so natural disasters (e.g.,

 

earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes) and human failures should be

 

expected to some degree.

 

After rankings for probability and damage are made, bar graphs should

 

be made to clearly see and consider each crisis and compare it to others.

 

(Bar graphing can be done on various computer programs or by hand.)

 


 

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304

 


 

The Crisis Communications Plan

 


 

Company Z?s Crisis Inventory

 


 

5

 


 

4

 


 

3

 


 

2

 


 

1

 


 

0

 

Workplace

 

violence

 


 

Fire

 


 

Protest

 

demonstrations

 


 

= Damage

 


 

Negative

 

legislation

 


 

Tax

 

problems

 


 

= Probability

 


 

Figure 15.1 A sample bar graph showing how an organization might assess the

 

probability of, and degrees of damage resulting from, various types of crises.

 


 

At the base of each graph, write the name of each type of crisis. Plot the

 

height of each bar according to numbers attributed to each crisis in the

 

probability and damage rankings. Choose different colors or shadings

 

for probability bars and damage bars.

 

When Company Z plots its data on a bar graph, it resembles Figure

 

15.1. Considering Company Z?s graph, we see that the probability and

 


 

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305

 


 

seriousness of a crisis relating to tax problems is not as crucial as in the

 

other crises. This does not mean that a crisis plan is not important for

 

tax problems; it?s just not as important as for other issues, and not a

 

priority.

 

According to the graph, the possibility of Company Z?s suffering a

 

crisis resulting from negative legislation is likely, though not particularly critical. On the other hand, protest demonstrations are critical,

 

although not very likely. Workplace violence and fire seem both likely

 

and critical.

 

Most organizations plan for crises ranked high in both probability and

 

damage. In this case, Company Z would probably develop crisis management and communications plans for workplace violence first, then for

 

the other crises in descending order of importance: fire, protest demonstrations, negative legislation, and tax problems.

 

Sometimes organizations make crisis plans for the most devastating

 

crises no matter how probable or improbable they may be. In this case,

 

Company Z would develop plans for workplace violence first, followed

 

by protest demonstrations, then fire. Naturally, a version of Murphy?s

 

Law can be expected: That crisis for which you have no plan will likely

 

happen. However, you will find that any plan, and the process of

 

developing that plan, will make you more prepared for crises generally.

 

Some organizations, having several crises classified with similar

 

rankings in all categories, make general crisis communications plans

 

with detailed information for all types of crises, although sometimes the

 

detailed information is omitted.

 

Many companies, fearing all possibilities of crises equally, merely

 

adopt a policy of ?open and honest response? with the media and all

 

publics, and plan to be in a total reactive mode during a crisis.

 

The importance of the crisis inventory is to force organizations to think

 

about the possibilities. Sometimes the most ridiculous crisis occurs,

 

something no one in the company could predict. Pepsi probably never

 

dreamed that it would have a crisis about hypodermic syringes in its cans.

 

On the other hand, Foodmaker and Jack-in-the-Box could certainly have

 

anticipated children dying from eating hamburgers, and Exxon could have

 

anticipated a devastating oil spill.

 

The ranking procedure may introduce ideas for prevention programs.

 

You also may realize that your organization is more vulnerable than you

 

anticipated.

 

Considering that the toll of stress and emotion during a crisis necessarily

 

affects one?s thought processes, a carefully developed crisis communications plan is the best substitute for a fully functioning brain. Even if you

 

remain cool and calm under pressure, others in the company may not.

 

The crisis communications plan alleviates this problem, too.

 


 

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306

 


 

The Crisis Communications Plan

 


 

Developing the Crisis Communications Plan

 

Once likely crises have been identified, the crisis communications plan

 

can be written. A crisis communications plan can be part of a larger crisis

 

management plan (CMP) or it may be a stand-alone document to help

 

public relations practitioners handle crises more effectively.

 

The CMP includes information such as evacuation procedures,

 

emergency staffing of various departments of a company, and places to

 

purchase or rent emergency equipment, tools, or vehicles?all the things

 

a company may need in a crisis.

 

Public relations during a crisis focuses on communications with the

 

company?s publics during the crisis?for the most part, the same publics

 

to which normal PR activities are directed.

 

The CMP is sometimes a large volume of instructions, whereas a crisis

 

communications plan should be a more manageable, easier-to-read

 

document. After a crisis has erupted, employees are likely to look at a

 

large volume and say, ?We don?t have time to read this now,? and then

 

proceed to handle the crisis by ?winging? it. The crisis communications

 

plan should be organized in such a way that the practitioners can quickly

 

turn to each section. Some professionals use tabs in a notebook; others

 

use a table of contents. Keeping the crisis communications plan on a

 

computer can be dangerous because many crises prevent access to offices

 

(fire, earthquakes, explosives, etc.).

 

Many companies (such as Johnson & Johnson after the Tylenol crisis)

 

urge employees to keep copies of the plan in various key spots?the office,

 

at home, near the night stand, or in the car. That way, the odds are good

 

that at least one copy will be readily available should a crisis or disaster

 

occur.

 

If a crisis inventory determines, for example, that there are three likely

 

crises, the organization should draft a crisis communications plan for

 

each type. A plan for an earthquake must be different from a plan for a

 

product failure. The publics may be different; the media may be different;

 

the message must be different.

 

The crisis communications plan states purposes, policies, and goals,

 

then assigns employees to various duties. It generally makes communication with publics faster and more effective and should help end the crisis

 

more swiftly than without a plan.

 

When a crisis communications plan is ineffective, it is usually because

 

the type of crisis was not anticipated or because variables arose that were

 

not anticipated. For example, spokespersons or supplies may not be

 

available. The crisis communications plan sometimes fails because it is

 

outdated. Such plans should be updated regularly.

 

Even if unanticipated variables do arise, the crisis communications

 

plan should be more effective than having no plan at all. Still, it must be

 


 

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307

 


 

remembered that a crisis communications plan is not a manual guaranteeing success, with everything done ?by the book,? but rather a guide

 

that must be flexible.

 

An effective crisis communications plan should have the following

 

components, arranged in an order that best suits the organization and

 

the particular crisis or disaster:

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

cover page

 

introduction

 

acknowledgments

 

rehearsal dates

 

purpose and objectives

 

list of key publics

 

notifying publics

 

identifying the crisis communications team

 

crisis directory

 

identifying the media spokesperson

 

list of emergency personnel and local officials

 

list of key media

 

spokespersons for related organizations

 

crisis communications control center

 

equipment and supplies

 

pregathered information

 

key messages

 

website

 

blogs and social media

 

trick questions

 

list of prodromes

 

list of related Internet URLs

 

evaluation form.

 


 

Cover Page

 

The cover page of a crisis communications plan is similar to the cover

 

page of a term paper. There are as many ways of doing one as there are

 

ways of doing crisis communications plans. It should include at least the

 

date when the plan was written as well as revision dates.

 

Introduction

 

The head of the company or organization usually writes the introduction

 

(or the PR practitioner ghostwrites it for the CEO with his or her

 

approval). The purpose of this component is to persuade employees to

 

take the crisis communications plan seriously. It stresses the necessity and

 


 

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308

 


 

The Crisis Communications Plan

 


 

importance of the plan and it emphasizes the dire results possible when

 

a plan is not followed.

 

Acknowledgments

 

This crisis communications plan component takes the form of an affidavit

 

signed by all crisis personnel as well as by key executives, indicating that

 

they have read the plan and are prepared to put it into effect. The signatures assure management that its personnel have read the plan.

 

Rehearsal Dates

 

Dates of rehearsals for all crises are recorded here. The most damaging

 

and most likely crises should be practiced at least annually if not every

 

6 months. Rehearsal for any type of crisis is helpful even if an eventual

 

crisis turns out to be somewhat different.

 

Purpose and Objectives

 

The purpose statement details the organization?s policies toward its

 

publics. It might say, for example, ?In a crisis, an open and honest

 

disclosure with the media shall be stressed.? The purpose is an expressed

 

hope for a recovery and return to normalcy, to get out of the media. The

 

objectives are responses to the question, ?What do you hope to achieve

 

with this plan?? Objectives should not be overly ambitious in difficulty

 

or number. For example, a company may adopt the following goals:

 

1. To be seen in the media as a company that cares about its customers

 

and employees.

 

2. To make certain that all communications are accurate.

 

List of Key Publics

 

The key publics list should include all publics, both external and internal,

 

with which the organization must communicate during the crisis. The

 

list varies with organizations, but may include the following as well as

 

others:

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

board members

 

shareholders

 

financial partners

 

investors

 

community leaders

 

customers

 


 

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The Crisis Communications Plan

 


 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

309

 


 

clients

 

suppliers

 

vendors

 

neighbors of physical plant(s)

 

competitors

 

key management

 

employees

 

legal representation

 

media

 

union officials

 

retirees

 

government officials (city, state, county, federal).

 


 

Although all publics need not be notified in every crisis, the list of key

 

publics should be comprehensive. It is easier to eliminate unneeded

 

publics at the time of crisis than it is to think of all the crucial publics

 

during the stress of a crisis.

 

Publics fall into the following categories:

 

?

 


 

?

 


 

?

 


 

?

 


 

Enabling publics?those people with the power and authority to make

 

decisions: the board of directors, shareholders, investors, and key

 

executives. Notifying enabling publics is a priority.

 

Functional publics?the people who actually make the organization

 

work: employees, unions, suppliers, vendors, consumers, and volunteers in the case of nonprofit organizations.

 

Normative publics?those people who share values with the organization in crises: trade associations, professional organizations, and

 

competitors.

 

Diffused publics?those people linked indirectly to the organization

 

in crisis: the media, community groups, and neighbors of the physical

 

plant.

 


 

Notifying Publics

 

To notify publics, a system must be devised for contacting each public,

 

and that system should be described in the crisis communications plan.

 

Social media networks such as Facebook groups can be used if people

 

use computers constantly. For internal publics, many companies use a

 

chain procedure, such as a telephone tree, in which each person is

 

specifically designated to call others. The person who learns about the

 

crisis first notifies the CEO, the head of public relations, and the head

 

of the department that may be involved. The chain should be clear and

 

error-free, even in the event that certain individuals are not reached.

 


 

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310

 


 

The Crisis Communications Plan

 


 

An appropriate means of notification must be decided on for each

 

public. A news release, for example, is appropriate primarily for the news

 

media, not for other publics.

 

Board members are often reached by telephone or fax. E-mail or other

 

computerized communications are also used. The media can be notified

 

by way of telephone, wire service, fax, press conference, e-mail, or news

 

release. Other methods used for notifying publics include telegrams,

 

personal visits, letters, advertisements, bulletin boards, and meetings (see

 

Figure 15.2).

 

Identifying the Crisis Communications Team

 

The crisis communications team members, along with back-ups, should

 

be preselected. The team manager is usually, but not always, the head

 

of public relations. He or she has specific responsibilities: communicating

 

with top management, making decisions, drafting or approving major

 

statements, and notifying the rest of the crisis communications team.

 


 

YOUR

 

COMPANY

 


 

MESSAGE: There has been an explosion in the plant. There are injured employees. We do not know, at this time,

 

the cause of the explosion or the extent of the injuries of the employees. An investigation is underway.

 


 

Methods of Communication

 

TELEPHONE

 


 

EMPLOYEES

 


 

EXECUTIVES

 


 

P

 

U

 

B

 

L

 

I

 

C

 

S

 


 

EMAIL

 


 

LETTER BY

 

MESSENGER

 


 

*Nelson J.

 


 

BULLETIN

 

BOARD

 


 

*J. Naas

 


 

*J. Naas

 


 

PERSONAL

 

VISIT

 


 

NEWS

 

RELEASE

 


 

*Nelson J.

 

M. Yerima

 


 

MEETINGS

 


 

*Nelson J.

 


 

*Damien L.

 


 

BOARD OF

 

DIRECTORS

 


 

*Nelson J.

 


 

ELECTRONIC

 

MEDIA

 


 

*K. Stone

 


 

DAILY

 

NEWSPAPERS

 


 

*Gina A.

 


 

COMMUNITY

 

LEADERS

 


 

NEWSLETTER

 


 

*Nelson J.

 


 

CUSTOMERS

 


 

SHARE

 

HOLDERS

 


 

LETTER

 

BY MAIL

 


 

* J. Naas

 


 

*Damien L.

 


 

*Gina A.

 


 

*K. Sone

 


 

*Gina A.

 


 

*Gina A.

 


 

WEEKLY

 

NEWSPAPERS

 

*Staff member

 

responsible for

 

communications

 

and followup

 


 

FAX

 


 

*Gina A.

 


 

*Ann C.

 


 

*Damien L.

 


 

*Ann C.

 


 

*Karen N.

 


 

*Karen N.

 


 

Figure 15.2 A sample chart showing how an organization might plan to communicate

 

with key publics during a crisis. It includes key talking points and ways of

 

communicating. The lists of publics and types of communication can be

 

longer, shorter, or otherwise different depending on the organization?s

 

needs.

 


 

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The assistant crisis manager assumes responsibility when the manager

 

is unavailable (a second back-up may be beneficial, if possible). The control

 

room coordinator sets up the room with necessary furniture, equipment,

 

supplies, and tools. An efficient executive assistant can be appointed for

 

this position.

 

Other PR personnel have the responsibilities of preparing news releases

 

and statements, contacting the media, and reporting all actions to the

 

crisis communications manager. These people may notify employees or

 

volunteers through letters or by writing telegrams to the mayor and

 

governor, by telephoning union officials and others, and so forth.

 

Crisis Directory

 

The company should prepare a crisis directory, listing all members of the

 

crisis team, key managers in the company, and key publics or organizations, along with titles, business and home telephone numbers, cellular

 

phone numbers, fax and e-mail addresses, as well as busin...

 

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