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UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Formulate different developmental approaches to training, including competency models and casebased decision making.
1.1 Plan ways of measuring training approaches.
Before completing your required reading assignment, watch the video that will briefly introduce some of the
readings and unit concepts:
Click here to access the Unit VIII Video.
Click here to access the Unit VIII Script.
Use the CSU Online Library to locate and read the following articles within the Academic OneFile database:
Burkett, H. J. (2008). The ROI (return on investment) of career development: A case study. Paradigm,
Hedderly, D. J., & Scott, H. (2015). Measuring the effectiveness of video training through technology-based
education. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 80(1), 41-50.
Lippman, H. (2001). Work/life value can be measured. Business & Health, 19(6), 43-44.
Moon, E. (2006). Rev up performance measures by overhauling employee training. Public Management,
It is important that we understand that in order for training and development to work in organizations, those
organizations must invest in human resource-related activities. If done correctly, training and development
can meet the goal of increased profitability and competitive advantages in their industry. However, achieving
this is sometimes easier said than done, and it can be challenging for organizations because its benefits are
not always immediately visible or easy to quantify. Some organizations do not know where to begin and fear
that investing money in training will not be worth it. It is also challenging to determine the full impact of training
and what employees learned from the training. How can organizations, in cooperation with training and
development professionals, address these problems?
No matter the challenges, organizational training seems like an important investment. However, many
organizations do not take the time and trouble to analyze the benefits of training. It can be difficult to evaluate
the usefulness of training in terms of specific return on investment. Why spend so much on something that
may or may not benefit the organization? Why is training so highly utilized?
The concept of training transfer, or how well what is learned in training is actually used in the job, is
something we should think about a lot more than we do. Transferability should be considered throughout
every stage of training, and it can be done through the following:
MHR 6551, Training and Development
1. Support of new behaviors from organization, supervisors, and peers isUNIT
learned a new procedure in training, and your department indirectly (or
directly) encourages you to
keep doing things the old way? How likely are you to stick to the new method?
2. New behaviors must be rewarding and not punishing. If the new method of doing something takes
twice as long as the old way, which will the average worker choose?
3. Establishing pre- and post-training strategies early helps reinforce new behaviors. Popular strategies
include providing preparatory information before training, advanced goal setting (?what do I want to
get out of training??), and relapse prevention techniques (tips to keep from falling back on old pretraining behaviors).
If training is ineffective, there is little point in doing it. Training evaluation is possibly the most important step in
the training process. You may remember Kirkpatrick?s four-level model from earlier in the course that provides
a path (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006):
The following are questions that you should ask yourself at each stage:
Did the trainees feel the training was
Did they enjoy it?
Would they recommend the training to
How much did the trainees learn from
Did this training provide them with the
skills needed to perform their jobs?
Will this training change how employees
act or behave?
Will the training have a positive impact
Will the training have a negative impact
Are trainees better equipped to meet
For example, if we just want measure a reaction to the training, we will use checklists or questionnaires.
Possible questions to include on the survey or questionnaire are:
Do you feel this training was relevant to your position in the company?
How will you use this training in your daily job?
How could this training be improved?
If we want a result-oriented outcome, we would measure through the performance appraisal process.
It used to be widely accepted that without the lower level outcomes, the later outcomes could not happen.
However, this may not always be the case. It might appear easier to learn from a fun, enjoyable training, but
liking a training is not always a prerequisite for getting something out of it. Further, the methods of evaluating
these outcomes are quite different and not always done effectively. Training processes must address the
1. The outcome level that you will evaluate for each of the different topics,
2. how you will measure the different training outcomes, and
3. samples of the questionnaires or surveys that will be used, if applicable.
Choosing and designing a training and development initiative that fits the needs and culture of the
organization can be a challenging task. The first step is to diagnose the environment, such as the readiness
MHR 6551, Training and Development
of the target audience to accept change. Second, develop an action plan to address
such as sexual harassment in the workplace. Third, evaluate the results to determine
Title if the behavior toward
this issue has changed.
Some may assume that training and development does not include data or math of any kind; however, this is
a false statement. Training does involve assisting people, but there is still a need for an understanding of
statistics and how to use data. These concepts are important because the data is used to measure the
effectiveness of the training and what employees learned. The data is the most accurate way to measure the
outcomes of training; we cannot just go by our gut feeling on a training. The most observed statistic to
consider is the relationship between the learning process of the training and the transfer of knowledge. The
data can help determine how much employees learned and how many benefited. When assessing the
training, it is important to note that the trainings need to be constant in regards to the environments and the
way information is presented. This is referred to as reliability of the process.
Training is intended to support the employees and organization in meeting organizational goals. Training and
development professionals are tasked with creating and implementing programs in order to meet these goals.
Additionally, training and development professionals highlight the value in these activities and incorporate a
variety of different training techniques and tools.
Kirkpatrick, D. & Kirkpatrick, J. (2006). Evaluating training programs: The four levels (3rd ed.). San Francisco,
In this unit, we discussed measurement of the training and how to determine the effectiveness. This PDF
explains this in more detail:
Weatherly, L. A. (2003). The value of people: The challenges and opportunities of human capital
measurement and reporting. 2003 SHRM Research Quarterly. Retrieved from
MHR 6551, Training and Development
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