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UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
5. Describe traditional training methods, computer-based training methods, and e-learning, including
appropriate uses for each.
8. Construct a rationale for designing approaches to the development of leadership competencies.
Before completing your required reading assignment, watch the video that will briefly introduce some of the
readings and unit concepts:
Click here to access the Unit VII Video.
Click here to access the Unit VII Script.
Use the CSU Online Library to locate and read the following articles within the Academic OneFile database:
Credibility, Commitment and Dialogue: Cornerstones of Leadership. (2012). Corrections Today, 74(1), 84-85.
Frank, L. (2008). Khin-Sandi Lwin: Passionate about women's leaderships. Sister Namibia, 20(1), 4-5.
Livingston, B. (2009). Building a bridge to the future with leadership training. Corrections Today, 71(2), 46-48.
White, L. R. (2014). Military leadership lessons for management accountants. Strategic Finance, 95(10),
There have been many illuminating debates over the years concerning the differences or similarities of
leadership and management. Many people would argue that there are major differences in the concepts and
precepts of leadership and management because you lead and love people from the emotional state of mind
(heart) and manage processes, ideas, and things through a logical state of mind (head). Having said this, one
could postulate that leadership and management debates will probably continue well into the future because
the opposing differences in philosophical viewpoints are based on unique organizational dynamics.
Sometimes you hear the expression ?natural born leader.? Leadership is a learned process, but people must
be born with the ability to absorb and apply the leadership concepts they have learned.
Those who have served as leaders and managers for many years are oftentimes inclined to believe that there
are similarities as well as differences in leadership and management. Equally important, experience has
proven that in some cases leadership and management overlap because organizations are composed of
behavior (emotional) and task (production) relationships. However, some do not believe that they are one and
the same. Some similarities of leadership and management are that they are both influential, work with
others, and work towards meeting the organizational goals (Northouse, 2004).
Leadership and management skills are required to be an effective leader. Moye (2004) echoed this point by
stating that not only are the best leaders good managers, but the strongest managers are also great leaders.
It is also important to note that managing is a subset of leading, meaning that management is just one part of
leadership. She went on to say that managers have authority with employees or projects, whereas leaders
MHR 6551, Training and Development
motivate those people and projects (Moye, 2004). Warren Bennis is famous for
leadership and management. Some of his one-liners include:
The manager administers, the leader innovates.
The manager is a copy, the leader is an original.
The manager maintains, the leader develops.
The manager focuses on systems and structures, the leader focuses on people.
The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing. (Bennis as cited in Murray, 2015,
What do you notice from Bennis? one-liners? Remember that management is a subset of leading. It is the
leaders who grow and develop as well as motivate and connect with their employees. Management, on the
other hand, enforces and maintains guidelines and rules.
However, it is important to note that Northouse (2004) stated that effective organizations need to nourish
competent management and leadership skills. Briner and Pritchard (1997) stated that leaders lead and
managers manage. Interestingly, they also stated that often one person will fill both roles in an organization.
Many believe that not all managers can be considered leaders, and that while there are many managers in
the world, leaders are a bit harder to come by. Most organizations have many managers, according to job
titles, and very few leaders. Therefore, quite naturally, most professional development training is designed for
managers and not leaders. Maxwell (1999) stated that titles do not have much value when it comes to
leading. Job titles are only influential when the title is seen by employees as powerful. An example would be
the Vice-President of the United States. But, this power of position has little long-term influence; it is the
personal power of a leader that makes him or her successful. Can you think of a leader that held positional
power but little personal power?
Moreover, managers can maintain direction, but cannot change it, but a leader?s influence can move people in
a new direction. Perhaps it is time for organizations to change job titles from management to leadership and
focus on developing leaders instead of managers. Management is a function that has been exercised in
corporate businesses for years and most effective organizations got it right. However, Bennis points out the
need for leadership in organizations. He went on to say that we could not function without leaders (Bennis as
cited in Murray, 2015). When employees are able to follow and believed in the organization, it can help it grow
and succeed. Further, our quality of life depends on the quality of our leaders. Based on this premise,
perhaps organizations should place more emphasis on leadership to meet the many challenging demands of
a constantly changing and dynamic environment. Leadership and management are, of course, different
concepts, but they are both necessary in order for the organization for function properly. What do you think
would happen if there was no management in a large organization? Do you think the organization could still
find success? As you consider your response, think of why this is the case. Additionally, consider the powerful
combination of leadership and management. If an organization could successfully create and utilize this
combination, there could be a lot of positive effects.
Effective leaders must continue to strive for excellence and demand the same from their followers. Leaders
must continue their educational and professional development to add even more value to the organization.
For example, today?s leaders need to learn how to motivate employees as individuals and in groups.
Organizations cannot grow if its leaders do not grow. As business culture becomes more global,
sophisticated, and competitive, the need for insightful and innovative leadership strategies is more important
than ever. Organizations continue to strive to cultivate local and global competencies for key talent. Highpotential employees are selected for leadership roles and for international assignments to broaden their
perspective and global awareness (Murray, 2015). These employees are immersed in learning topics such as
cross-cultural awareness, communication skills, global leadership, and global management skills. They must
learn how to think and act globally and make learning a core competency for the global organization.
Organizational survival in a competitive business environment depends in part on having identified and
developed global leaders. Remember what we said above; there are many more managers than leaders. The
same is true for global leaders. The lack of global leaders with the skills required for global operations means
that organizations must help employees develop into leaders. There are important challenges such as the
MHR 6551, Training and Development
impact and influence exerted by the culture, measurement and evaluations of UNIT
interventions, and career development and reward systems.
Briner, B., & Pritchard, R. (1997). The leadership lessons of Jesus: A timeless model for today?s leaders.
Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman.
Maxwell, J. C. (1999). The 21 indispensable qualities of a leader: Becoming the person others will want to
follow. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson,
Moye, J. (2004). Leadership vs. management: Special interest group. AAACN Viewpoint. Retrieved from
Murray, A. (n.d.). What is the difference between management and leadership? The Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved from http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/what-is-thedifference-between-management-and-leadership/
Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
MHR 6551, Training and Development
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