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Comprehensive Doctoral Review Examination Presented in Partial-(Answered)

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I have completed an assignment for comprehensive exam and all I need is for someone to check how I did with the explanation of the data analysis. How much will this cost? I have the sections that need to be checked highlighted everything else was checked already.


Comprehensive Doctoral Review Examination

 

Presented in Partial Fulfillment

 

of the Requirements for the Degree

 

Doctor of Philosophy

 


 

By

 


 

Sally A. Camacho

 

English as a Second Language

 

School of Education

 

Northcentral University

 

April 17, 2016

 


 

2

 

Question 3: Research

 

For question 3, you will need to demonstrate the ability to employ research methods used within

 

your specialization. You are expected to critique research methodologies used by scholarpractitioners and compose responses identifying best practices in educational research.

 

Select five empirical articles from peer-reviewed journals you consider critical to your

 

understanding of your specialization and:

 

1. Describe each study, including:

 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 

The research problem, questions, or hypotheses

 

The research purpose

 

The type of design and elements of the design (e.g., sample, data analysis,

 

operationalization of constructs)

 

Threats to validity and if and how addressed

 

The findings and implications

 

Note if the article makes a compelling case for the meaning and significance of the

 

findings

 


 

2. Select one of the five articles above. Using the article, assess how you might conduct the

 

research study differently. Address:

 


 


 


 


 

The research questions

 

The research purpose

 

Type of design and elements of the design (e.g., sample, the type of data you need to

 

collect and how you will collect it, data analysis)

 

The strengths and weaknesses of your envisioned design and methods

 

Quantitative: threats to validity and how your design will address them

 

Quantitative: the constructs you will measure and what you will do in order to determine

 

how to operationalize them (you do not need to identify specific measures)

 

Qualitative: your means of ensuring the quality of your findings

 

Justification for why your chosen design and methods are more appropriate for your

 

research question than alternatives you have considered

 

Your methods of data analysis

 

How the data you collect will enable you to answer your research question and

 

contribute to theory

 

Learning Outcomes

 

3. Apply relevant theory and research from the specialization coursework to real life situations to

 

solve specific problems and discusses implications.

 


 

3

 


 

Part I

 

Research Methods used within the Education of English Language Learners and the

 

Challenges they face with High-Stakes Tests

 

The methods considered were based on the education of English Language Learners

 

(ELL) and the challenges they face with high-stakes tests. The five articles explore the changes

 

in the United States educational, standards, accountability measures and regulations during

 

testing. The new educational initiatives challenge content area teachers teaching ELL students to

 

meet the goals set for content assessment during the end of the year standard testing. The ELL

 

population continues to grow and continues to confront disadvantages in linguistic and cultural

 

diversity. Teachers are charged with the difficult task of demonstrating content mastery of all

 

students including non-ELL students and ELL students. School districts must find a way to

 

address standards while supporting the needs of ELL without watering down content. The

 

articles provide much insight on what has been considered for the improvement in the decision

 

making process of accommodations, preparation for testing, and testing.

 

Selected Empirical, Peer Reviewed Articles

 

Article One: Do decision rules matter? A descriptive study of English language proficiency

 

assessment classifications for English language learners and native English speakers in fifth

 

grade

 

The research study?s problem is the lack of guiding principles used for classifying and or

 

reclassifying ELL students on language proficiency assessments. The English Language

 

Proficiency (ELP) performance standard is used for accountability allowing for the federal

 

government to report on student academic achievement, but if the students? are not classified

 

correctly, the report will not be accurate. The research questions focus on to what degree the

 

decision rules vary in the total amount of students who may be classified as non-proficient. The

 


 

4

 

second question focuses on to what degree decision rules classify the high-achieving students as

 

non-proficient and the last question centers around to what degree decision rules vary in the total

 

amount of students who may be classified as unqualified for redesignation. The purpose of this

 

research study is to operationalize and test the ELP performance standards and the decision

 

making of the students? classification and eligibility. The procedures began with the

 

administration of ELL students with the English language proficiency assessment (ELPA). A

 

mandated assessment is given annually to ELL students. Another group of non-ELL students

 

were also tested for research purposes only during the scheduled testing window.

 

The design of this study was descriptive focusing on operationalizing and testing English

 

Language Proficiency (ELP) performance standards for student-level decision making. The study

 

collected data from State A Department of Education in the course of the annual testing of

 

formerly identified ELL students, spring of 2010. The sample was chosen from two clusters, K12 ELL students, and K-12 non-ELL students. From the study, one grade level pulled out for

 

analysis, fifth grade. The measurement chosen was the State?s English Language Proficiency

 

Assessment (ELPA) that targets listening, speaking, reading and writing and is clustered by grade

 

levels. The second measurement used was the Standards-Based Achievement Assessment

 

(SBAA) which is computer-administered, non-adaptive, and measures academic content:

 

Language Arts, reading, language usage, Math, and Science.

 

The data analysis was based on four decision rules created for non-proficient

 

classifications of ELL students. The four decision rules were as follows; conjunctive geared to all

 

indicators at the performance standards, compensatory geared to below performance standards,

 

mixed allowing for two models to be combined, and complementary which takes into

 

consideration one or two possible performance indicators. For the classification of high-

 


 

5

 

achievers to be examined, a different set of rules was set. Researchers hypothesized that the

 

conjunctive model would allow for more non-proficient classifications than of the mixed model.

 

Then, to examine the four decision rules on the students who unqualified for redesignation,

 

researchers would calculate the number and percentage of students were meeting the goals set of

 

ELPA.

 

The research study argues that unless test developers or states under peer-review are in

 

agreement with the U. S. Department of Education and the decision rules and model were chosen

 

then there would be challenges to validity. This particular study meets the criterion for

 

convergent validity because of standards-based achievement performances of the ELL and nonELL students. The findings for the decision rules of non-existent high-achievers proved to be too

 

difficult for the present monolingual students in this study leaving questions about what

 

constitutes non-proficient as opposed to proficient because of the false positive in the

 

conjunctive decision rule. The significance of the study is for future research to ensure a more

 

valid and reliable process with the measurement and assessment systems that would allow for

 

more efficient and equitable testing.

 

Article Two: Classroom Assessment and English Language Learners: Teachers?

 

Accommodations Implementation on Routine Math and Science Tests

 

The article was chosen based on the challenges of ELL students with high-stakes tests.

 

The research explores the problem with the surge of new educational accountability measures

 

and initiatives. The measures brought concerns to content area teachers of ELL students because

 

of the evaluation of the content material taught in classrooms and on high-stakes tests. The

 

problem that teachers face with assessing knowledge but not changing the intended construct of

 

the test is of primary significance. The problem with the policy for how math and science

 


 

6

 

classroom-based assessment practices and accommodations are established are investigated in

 

this mixed study. The recent study strives to answer the following questions: What are the

 

reported accommodations implemented by ELL elementary school teachers on classroom math

 

and science tests? Do teachers report changes in accommodations implementation for ELLs at

 

the different proficiency levels? Do teachers report differently for ELLs with special needs than

 

for other ELLs when they implement accommodations?

 

The methods used will take into consideration the testing accommodations, testing

 

environments, and the criteria used for scoring, to present the effects of the construct-irrelevant

 

variance once the ELL students? linguistic barriers are removed given the same assessment

 

constructs of non-ELL classmates. The participants chosen were from Pennsylvania public

 

schools because of their high rate of ELL student population. K-6 elementary teachers across 10

 

Pennsylvanian school districts took a survey. Then, ten fourth grade teachers were chosen for

 

classroom observations and another group completed one-on-one interviews. The data collection

 

and analysis was based on the online surveys, semi-structured individual interviews with the ten

 

fourth grade teachers, and the classroom observations. For the quantitative portion of the design,

 

the online adaptive survey of 51 items was analyzed to learn more about the teachers? assessment

 

practices with the ELL students in the areas of math and science. The themes considered were

 

grading and teacher accommodations of ELLs resulting in how teachers feel about classroom

 

math and science assessment. For the qualitative portion of the design a 45 min. Semi-Structured

 

individual interviews of about 15 questions were led by ten fourth grade teachers. The 15

 

questions were divided into four sessions. The analysis was based on the assessment practices,

 

teacher knowledge, teacher understanding of test and accommodations, and the principles behind

 

the decisions made for ELL students. The data was coded to find the degree to which

 


 

7

 

professional development could help teacher beliefs, student ability to learn, academic language,

 

the role of language development, culture as a part of instruction, and teacher self-efficacy, and

 

teacher modifications in teaching practices. The interviews, coding, and analysis were digitally

 

recorded and transcribed as soon as they were conducted.

 

The findings of the research questions are as follows; for the question, if ELL students

 

are required to take math and science tests, most surveyed teachers always reported giving ELL

 

students in regular math and science classrooms the same test without taking into consideration

 

their proficiency levels. Other teachers, tested beginning proficiency level ELL students test less

 

frequently than the intermediate level ELL students, and another set of teachers exempted

 

beginning proficiency level ELL students from math and science test. For the question, if

 

changes are made to tests or test administrations to assist the ELL students, the answers were,

 

many teachers reported to improve tests depending on ELL students proficiency level. When the

 

question was asked how much additional time is given for ELL students in math and science test,

 

most teachers always reported providing additional time to ELL students. Teacher assistance was

 

also defined by the research resulting in 30% of the teachers provide support to ELL students

 

during tests. Accommodations led to no teachers providing interpreters or translators during

 

classroom-based assessments, bilingual dictionary use was limited or never reported, and or test

 

written in two languages never. The overall findings indicate that ELL students with special

 

needs classroom accommodations implementation is the custom but needs to be the custom for

 

ELL students in general. The implications involve more teacher professional development on

 

assessments, greater teacher awareness of language proficiency levels and the lack of

 

accommodation implementations in classrooms. The significance of the findings indicate that the

 

assumptions states made on classroom accommodations must be re-examined to facilitate ELL

 


 

8

 

students on their performance on high-stakes tests. The study does not mention any threats even

 

though, in the field of language assessment, validity is of concern when it comes to forms of

 

measurement, score interpretation, and when subsequent decisions have to be made based on the

 

assessment. The intent of the test construct was not changed though some of the linguistic

 

barriers were removed to assess the same constructs as the non-ELL students.

 

Article Three: Reading, Writing, and Learning English in an American High School

 

Classroom

 

The research problem in this microenthographic study examines the struggles teachers

 

face with state?s standardized curriculum to support multilingual students within an academic

 

school year. Teachers? perception is that standardized curriculum only focuses on standardized

 

tests and not on the individual needs of the multilingual students. Multilingual students in middle

 

schools focus on genres that are directly aligned with the standardized test and are normally

 

shorter passages than what is expected in high school. The research questions targeted in this

 

study focuses on how do high school English language arts classrooms with multilingual learners

 

in reading and writing instruction use the text-based standards-driven curriculum. The second

 

question focuses on teachers? interpretation of the standards-driven curriculum requirements and

 

if multilingual students are supported or limited to opportunities for learning academic reading

 

and writing. The purpose of the study is to examine effects the educational policies on reading

 

and writing instruction for 9th-grade multilingual learners and how the intended policies

 

determine the ideologies and interpretations of teacher practices.

 

The data included 26 days of field notes and observations through an audio-recorded

 

interview with the teacher, printed data sources from the primary textbook, Holt English 9

 

curriculum, pacing guide, other resource and supplemental materials used along with the school

 

district?s teacher handbook for English 9th grade and benchmark assignments.

 


 

9

 

The data was analyzed by using the micro-ethnographic discourse analysis (MEDA) in

 

three sessions. The analysis alternated between close examination of spoken and written

 

discourse by teachers and students in the classroom and the discourse created through larger

 

events that make up a particular lesson. MEDA identifies multiple levels of analysis. On the

 

other hand, another analysis was conducted through the transcribing of audio recordings and

 

indexing key events in the classroom. Frequency tables demonstrated the much use of the

 

different textbooks, some use, and little use of the textbooks. Threats to validity were not directly

 

stated but because it was a microethnographic study and only one participant was observed the

 

objectivity could be threatened. On the other hand, it is a study that can be replicated on a larger

 

scale, so the assumption is that the threats are minimal.

 

The findings revealed that policy requirements forced multilingual students in reading

 

and writing 9th-grade instruction to focus primarily on a task that prepared students for highstakes tests. The implications of this study are whether or not students learned enough to meet

 

the benchmark assignments to demonstrate then proficiency on the year-end goals of the

 

standardized assessment. The assumption is that skilled teachers may determine how to teach

 

curricular programs to multilingual students. The recommendation for future research is to

 

analyze the new standards and curricular materials and how teachers are using, adapting, and

 

differentiating instruction for multilingual students.

 

Article Four: Formative, Informative, and Summative Assessment: The Relationship

 

Among Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading, Classroom Engagement, and Reading

 

Performance

 

In Quebec, classroom teachers are required to administer and correct high school exit

 

exams. The high school exit exams are developed by the New Ministry of Education, Leisure and

 

Sports (MELS) program. Classroom teachers are also put in the position of participating in the

 


 

10

 

development and validation process of aligning classroom-based assessments along with a

 

writing exam. The problem is classroom teachers, and the large-scale of test developers confront

 

external standards and requirement issues of validity. For teachers to develop classroom-based

 

assessments, teachers must know their students and focus the assessment on what has been

 

taught in the classroom. Working with a large-scale test development and with the classroom

 

context to consider, the factors caused uncontrolled variables to affect the outcomes of the

 

assessments. The purpose of this research study is to align context and pedagogy to high-stakes

 

English as a Second Language testing. The questions considered refer to how the rater training

 

affect the teachers? use of the marking rubric and how the teachers participation in the rater

 

training perceive its benefits to teaching, learning, and assessing students in the classroom. In

 

Quebec, 50% of the total grade is taken from the exit exams, and the other 50% is taken from the

 

classroom-based assessments.

 

The study employed a convergent mixed method design to examine how secondary

 

teachers? rate training facilitated the alignment of the MELS-expected standards. The data was

 

collected through four phases. The first phase was marking and recording students? scores. The

 

second phase was sharing students? papers. In phase three, teacher rater training took place at the

 

same time the quantitative and qualitative data was collected. During phase four, the rater

 

training on scoring behaviors of both testing periods took center stage. The results for the first

 

question revealed rater behavior across the year 2010 and 2011 led to changes in the rubric.

 

Descriptive statistics and correlations were used by looking at means and standard deviations for

 

the correlations between the variables of the engagement-student report, the engagement-teacher

 

report, reading competence, and reading performance. A Chi-square analysis and Factor Analysis

 


 

11

 

M-Plus was conducted to evaluate if the missing data differed among demographic

 

characteristics.

 

The results for the second question indicate that the classroom teachers training had a

 

positive impact in their classrooms and their understanding of writing exams and rubric

 

expectations improved. The findings offered a clear perspective on the importance of

 

communication and cooperation among test developers, teacher raters and classroom teachers in

 

understanding the expectations of the new writing assessments and rubrics. The significance of

 

the study was to help improve the rigor, alignment, and qualities of the rubric descriptors. The

 

underlying principles allowed for test validity, benefiting teachers and students in teaching and

 

learning.

 

Article Five: The Impact of Communication and Collaboration Between Test Developers

 

and Teachers on a High-Stakes ESL Exam: Aligning External Assessment and Classroom

 

Practices

 

The research on formative assessment and student reading achievement has been

 

investigated for much time now, with the difference that this study examines the problem of

 

curriculum-based measurement and reading (CBM-R) associated with social, behavioral, and or

 

emotional aspects because it has not been fully explored. The purpose is to build a relationship

 

between CBM-R, student engagement, reading competence, and performance in the general

 

education classrooms of third to fifth-grade students. The research questions focus on which

 

formative assessments of reading facilitates learning through engagement and which tools can

 

assist in the decision making of appropriate instruction and intervention.

 

Teachers and students were selected from six schools in high-risk communities, and four

 

were Title I schools. The students were given parental consent forms to participate. The data

 

analysis plan only included information for the students? whose teachers contributed to the

 


 

12

 

survey from the fall and spring data. The instrumentation chosen was teacher report of student

 

engagement, student report of engagement, reading competence using CBM-R measurements,

 

and reading performance from state criterion referenced tests. The data was analyzed using

 

several descriptive statistics to examine central tendencies, variability, and distributions of the

 

study variables. A range of multivariate analyses was conducted to examine the effects of topic

 

choice on writing task scores, the Rasch analyses were performed using the FACETS program,

 

and the MELS was used to evaluate the ratings and the content mainly involving the coding for

 

theme development.

 

The results indicate that students with lower reading competence who were engaged

 

during reading assessments performed better on the summative assessments. On the contrary,

 

students with higher reading ability were not influenced by the engagement. The findings reveal

 

motivation as an essential component of student reading achievement in CBM-R assessments. Its

 

limitations, however are, based on the threats of validity found in the technical qualities of the

 

CBM-R measurement equivalence related to the different subgroups, left unanswered questions.

 

The implications and further research support a growing need for the literature of CBM-R for

 

school use and how it relates to extra-academic factors for student achievement. The study?s

 

significance is the continued investigation of whether or how engagement can be adjusted or

 

influenced as an indicator of recent or distal performance.

 


 

13

 

Part II

 

Article Five: The Impact of Communication and Collaboration Between Test Developers

 

and Teachers on a High-Stakes ESL Exam: Aligning External Assessment and Classroom

 

Practices

 

Research Redefined

 

The redefined research study considered is based on the need of English Language

 

Learners in St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands (USVI) taking and meeting the standards on

 

high-stakes tests. The impact of communication and collaboration among all test developers and

 

teachers alike may assist with the alignment of assessments.

 

Revised Research Questions

 

The study would ask the following research questions concerning the need to link context

 

pedagogy in lesson planning and design in preparation for ESL students taking high-stakes tests.

 

Question 1. What literacy assignments did the ESL and content area teachers use in the

 

classroom, and how were they linked to the standard-based assessments? Question 2. What type

 

of literacy test preparation materials did the ESL and content area teachers choose, adjust, or

 

construct for classroom use in order to prepare ESL students for the test? Question 3. What were

 

the benefits of using the literacy test preparation materials to the teaching, learning, and

 

assessments process of the ESL and content area classrooms?

 

Revised Research Purpose

 

The revised purpose focused around secondary school ESL and content area teachers?

 

alignment of classroom-based literacy assessments and materials and high-stakes tests. The study

 

is as a result of concerns with ESL students not meeting the standards set forth by high-stakes

 

tests. The purpose is to examine how teacher training on the alignment of classroom-based

 

assessments and materials and high-stakes tests.

 

Revised Research Design

 


 

14

 

The USVI public schools, where this revised research study would possibly to take place,

 

has an increase of Hispanics/ESL population. Many of the immigrants are coming from the

 

Dominican Republic. There is a need to robust the ESL program and materials for the ESL

 

students to meet the standards set forth by the high-stakes tests at the end of the year. The schools

 

included in this revised study are the public St. Croix schools with a high ESL population,

 

schools with free and reduce lunch, and schools that did not attain reached yearly progress

 

standard goals. Surveys would be given to school administrators to determine eligibility. The

 

data will be analyzed using several descriptive statistics to examine the constructs of external

 

assessment development contexts, ELL test-takers, and classroom context. They will be

 

measured through questions, survey, interview, observations and pre and post testing data. To

 

determine how to operationalize the constructs, I will define variables into measurable factors

 

and develop specific procedures.

 

The research design chosen is a mixed method design because it will best answer the

 

research questions. The quantitative and qualitative data synthesis would take place at the end of

 

the data analysis process after all testing and training have...

 

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