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NAVAIR 0080180 AERODYNAMICS FOR-(Answered)

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Completely lost on this hw assignment. I have included my previous drag table that it references. Previous HW and text provided.


NAVAIR 00?801?80

 


 

AERODYNAMICS FOR NAVAL

 

AVIATORS

 

BY

 

H.

 


 

H.

 


 

HURT, JR.

 


 

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

 


 

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

 

DESTRUCTION NOTICE - For unclassified, limited documents, destroy by any method that will

 

prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

 


 

PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER, NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND

 


 

/3

 

REVISED JANUARY 1965

 


 

Reproduction for non-military use of the information or illustrations contained in this

 

publication is not permitted without specific approval of the issuing service (NAVAIR

 

or USAF). The policy for use of Classified Publications is established for the Air Force

 

in AFR 205-1 and for the Navy in Navy Regulations, Article 1509?

 

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ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE OBTAINED AS FOLLOWS,

 

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NA VY ACTIVmE~UJe DO FORM U'" and fllbmit in accordance with the inKruC:JiODi contained in NAVSUP PUBLICATION -4'7-Military Standard Requilitioning and Issue Procedures.

 

Fot information on othtl' available maurW Ind details of distribution refer to NAVSUP PUBLICATION 2002

 

SECTION VIII, PART c ..d NAVAIR OO?IOOA.

 

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NAVAIR 00-80T-80

 

02 JANUARY 1965

 


 

NAVAIR 00-80T-80 DATED 01 JAUARY 1965 CHANGED THE DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

 

AND DESTRUCTION NOTICE ON THE TITLE PAGE. PLEASE REMOVE AND DISCARD

 

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0801LP1093899

 


 

PREFACE

 

The purpose of this textbook is to present the elements of applied

 

aerodynamics and aeronautical engineering which relate directly to

 

the problems of flying operations. All Naval Aviators possessa natural

 

interest in the basic aerodynamic factors which affect the performance

 

of all aircraft. Due .to the increasing complexity of modern aircraft,

 

this natural interest must be applied to develop a sound understanding

 

of basic engineering principles and an appreciation of some of the more

 

advanced problems of aerodynamics and engineering. The safety and

 

effectiveness of flying operations will depend greatly on the understanding and appreciation of how and why an airplane flies. The

 

principles of aerodynamics will provide the foundations for developing

 

exacting and precise flying techniques and operational procedures.

 

The content of this textbook has been arranged to provide as complete as possible a reference for all phases of flying in Naval Aviation.

 

Hence, the text material is applicable to the problems of flight training, transition training, and general flying operations. The manner

 

of presentation throughout the text has been designed to provide the

 

elements of both theory and application and will allow either directed

 

or unassisted study. As a result, the text material?will be applicable

 

to supplement formal class Iectures and briefings and provide reading

 

material as a background for training and flying operations.

 

Much of the specialized mathematical detail of aerodynamics has

 

been omitted wherever it was considered unnecessary in the field of

 

flying operations. Also, many of the basic assumptions and limitations of certain parts of aerodynamic theory have been omitted for the

 

sake of simplicity and clarity of presentation. In order to contend with

 

these specific shortcomings, the Naval Aviator should rely on the

 

assistance of certain specially qualified individuals within Naval Aviation. For example, graduate aeronautical engineers, graduates of the

 

Test Pilot Training School at the Naval Air Test Center, graduates of

 

the Naval Aviation Safety Officers Course, and technical representatives

 

of the manufacturers are qualified to assist in interpreting and applying

 

the more difficult parts of aerodynamics and aeronautical engineering.

 

To be sure, the specialized qualifications of these individuals should

 

be utilized wherever possible.

 

iii

 


 

NAVWEPS 00-801-80

 

PREFACE

 


 

The majority of aircraft accidents are due to some type of error of

 

the pilot. This fact has been true in the past and, unfortunately, most

 

probably will be true in the future. Each Naval Aviator should strive

 

to arm himself with knowledge, training, and exacting, professional

 

attitudes and techniques. The fundamentals of aerodynamics as presented in this text will provide the knowledge and background for

 

safe and effective flying operations. The flight handbooks for the aircraft will provide the particular techniques, procedures, and operating

 

data which are necessary for each aircraft. Diligent study and continuous training are necessary to develop the professional skills and techniques for successful flying operations.

 

The author takes this opportunity to express appreciation to those

 

who have assisted in the preparation of the manuscript. In particular,

 

thanks are due to Mr. J. E. Fairchild for his assistance with the portions dealing with helicopter aerodynamics and roll coupling phenomena. Also, thanks are due to Mr. J. F. Detwiler and Mr. E. Dimitruk

 

for their review of the text material.

 

HUGH HARRISON HURT, Jr.

 

August 1959

 

University of Southern California

 

Los Angelesj

 


 

Cnlif.

 


 

iv

 


 

NAVWEPS OO-801-8O

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PREFACE..

 


 

,.,

 


 

.

 


 

iii

 


 

CHAPTERI: BASIC AERODYNAMICS

 

WING

 


 

AND

 


 

AIRFOIL

 


 

FORCES

 


 

1

 


 

PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

 

Static pressure

 

Temperature

 

Density

 

Viscosity

 

Standard atmosphere

 

Pressure altitude

 

Density altitude

 


 

BERNOULLI?S

 


 

PRINCIPLE

 


 

AND

 


 

SUBSONIC AIRFLOW..

 


 

Bernoulli?s equation,

 

Incompressible tlow

 

Variation of static pressureand velocity

 

Kinetic and porcntial energy of flow

 

Static and dynamic prcssurc, 4

 

Factors affecting dynamic pressure

 

Airspeed measurement..

 

Stagnation prcssurc

 

Measurement of dynamic pressure

 

Pitot and static sources

 

Indicated airspeed

 


 

DEVELOPMENT

 


 

OF AERODYNAMIC

 


 

Streamline pattern and pressure distribution.

 

Generatioaoflift..........................................

 

Circulation

 

Pressure distribution

 

Airfoil terminology.

 

Aerodynamic force coefficient

 

..

 

Basic lift equation

 

Lift coefficient

 

Dynamic prcssurc and surface area

 

?

 


 

9

 


 

..

 


 

FORCES..

 


 

4

 

6

 


 

.......

 

.......

 

.......

 


 

14

 

14

 

16

 


 

?,:

 

23

 


 

NAVWEPS OO-EOT-80

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PW

 


 

Interpretation of the lift equation..

 

Lift cocfficicnt versus angle of attack

 

Stall speed and angle of attack

 

Angle of attack versus velocity

 

Primary control of airspeed

 

. . _ .. . _ .

 

mrfou un cnacactectsucs.

 

Section angle of attack and lift coefficient

 

Ty ical section chvactctistics

 

E&t of thickness and cambet

 

Drag characteristics,

 

.

 

Drag equation

 

Drag cocficicnt versus angle of attack

 

Lift-drag ratio

 

Power-off glide pctformancc

 

Airfoil drag chanwteristics..

 

Section drag cocfficicnt

 

Ty ical section characteristics

 

E 2 ect of thickness and cunbcr

 

Low drag sections

 


 

.

 


 

.... . .

 


 

. .

 


 

.

 


 

. .

 


 

..

 

. . .,.

 


 

:.

 


 

.. .

 


 

...

 


 

Maximum lift cc&cicnt

 

Stall angle of attack

 

..,e

 

*

 

. .

 

~lrecrorwergnt....................................................

 

Effect of maneuvering flight,.

 


 

23

 


 

27

 


 

....

 


 

)

 


 

FLIGHT AT HIGH LIFT CONDITIONS.

 

StaII speeds.

 

.

 

. ....

 


 

.

 


 

. .

 

..... .

 


 

.

 


 

29

 


 

33

 


 

35

 

3.5

 


 

::

 


 

Load factor ~ets~s bank angle

 

Stall spad versus load factor

 

Effect of high lift devices.,

 

Effect on stall speed

 


 

.

 


 

Stall angle of attack and stall recovery.

 


 

HIGH

 


 

...

 


 

37

 

.

 


 

.

 


 

39

 


 

LIFT DEVICES.

 


 

Types of high lift devices.,

 

Plain flap

 

S lit flap

 

SPotted flap

 

Fowler flap

 

Slots and slats

 

Boundary layer control

 

Operation of high lift devices.

 

Flap retraction and extension

 

Chan es in lift, drag, and trim

 

Effect of power

 


 

DEVELOPMENT

 


 

39

 

41

 


 

.

 


 

OF AERODYNAMIC

 


 

43

 


 

PITCHING

 


 

MOMENTS

 


 

Pressure distribution.

 

.~.

 

:

 

.

 

!

 

. :

 

Center of pressure and aerodynamic center.

 

Pitching moment coefficient.

 

.

 

,

 

Effect of camber

 

Effect of flaps

 

Relationship between center of pressure, aerodynamic centet, and

 

moment coefficient

 

Application to longitudinal stability. .

 

Stability and trim

 

Effect of supersonic flow

 

vi

 


 

a:

 

49

 


 

51

 


 

NAVWEPS OO-BOT-BO

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

52

 


 

FRICTION

 

EFFECTS.

 

Viscous Bow..

 

Boundarglayers....................................................

 

Laminar flow

 

Transition

 

Turbulent flow

 


 

52

 

52

 


 

ReyooldsNumber..................................................

 

Definition

 

Skin friction versus Reynolds Number

 


 

54

 


 

Airflowseparatioa..................................................

 

Pressure distribution

 

Prcswrc gradient and boundary layer energy

 

Factors affecting separation

 


 

56

 


 

Scaleeffect.........................................................

 

Effect on aerodynamic characteristics

 

Reynolds Number correlation

 


 

59

 


 

PLANFORM

 


 

EFFECTS AND

 


 

AIRPLANE

 


 

DRAG

 


 

EFFECT

 

OF WING

 

PLANFORM..

 

. .

 

Descr1puon of planform

 

Area, span,, and chord

 

Aspect ratm and taper

 

Sweepback

 

Mean aerodynamic chord

 

Development of lift by a wing..

 

vortex system

 

Ti and bound vortices

 

I&cd

 

flow and downwash

 

Scction angle of attack

 

Induced angle of attack

 


 

61

 

61

 


 

.

 


 

63

 


 

INDUCED

 

DRAG.

 

:

 

Induced angle of attack and inclined lift.

 

Induced drag coefficient,

 

Effect of lift coefficient

 

Effect of aspect ratio

 

Effectoflift........................................................

 

Effea of altitude..

 

EffectofsPeed......................................................

 

Effect of aspect ratio.

 

Lift and dra characteristics

 

Influcncc of f ow aspxt ratio configurations

 


 

66

 

66

 

68

 


 

EFFECT

 


 

74

 

74

 

76

 

76

 


 

OF

 


 

TAPER

 


 

AND

 


 

StiEEPtiACK.

 


 

Spanwise lift distribution

 

localinducedflow.................................................

 

Effect on lift and drag characteristics.

 

.?,

 

STALL

 


 

68

 

2;

 

71

 


 

77

 


 

PATI?ERNS.

 


 

Pnvorablestallpattern..............................................

 

EffeaofpIanform..................................................

 


 

::

 


 

Taper

 

Sweepback

 

Modifications for stall characteristics.

 


 

86

 


 

vii

 


 

NAVWEPS 00-801-80

 

TABLE OF CPNTENTS

 


 

PARASITE

 


 

*am

 

87

 


 

DRAG.

 


 

Sources of parasite drag.

 

Parasite drag coefficient.. . .

 

Parasite and induced drag.

 


 

.

 

.

 


 

87

 


 

Mi.li$z?.?1 p????ite dr2g CxEciczt

 

Airplane efficiency factor

 

Equivalent parasite area

 

91

 


 

Effect of configuration.

 

Effect of altitude.,

 

Effectofspeed......................................................

 


 

AIRPLANE

 


 

TOTAL

 


 

;:

 


 

DRAG..

 


 

92

 


 

Drag variation with speed

 

Induced and parasite drag

 

Stall speed

 

Minimum drag

 

Specific performance conditions

 

Compressibility drag rise

 


 

CHAPTER 2.

 

REQUIRED

 


 

AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE

 

THRUST

 


 

AND

 


 

POWER

 


 

DEFINITIONS.

 

Pan&e

 

drw

 

_ _.-__._14

 

_._- ;n&Ced

 

_-

 


 

96

 


 

Thrustandpowerrequir~~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

 


 

VARIATION

 


 

OF THRUST

 


 

AND

 


 

POWER REQUIRED

 

99

 

101

 

101

 


 

Effect of gross weight.

 

Effect of configuratmn.

 

Effect of altitude.

 

AVAILABLE

 


 

THRUST

 


 

PRINCIPLES

 


 

AND

 


 

POWER

 


 

OF PROPULSION.

 


 

Mass flow, velocity change, momentum change..

 

Newton?s laws,

 

Wastedpower...............................:.....................

 

Power available.

 

Propulsion efficiency.

 


 

TURBOJET

 


 

$6

 

97

 


 

104

 

104

 

104

 

104

 

106

 

106

 


 

ENGINES

 

107

 

109

 


 

Operatingcycle....................................................

 

Function of the components.

 

Inlet or diffuser

 

Compressor

 

Combustion chamber

 

Turbine

 

Exhaust nozzle

 

Turbojet

 


 

operating characteristics..

 


 

Thrust and power available

 

Effect of velocity

 

Effect of engine speed

 

Specific fuel consumption

 

Effect of altitude

 

Governing apparatus

 

Steady state, acceleration, deceleration

 

Instrumentation

 


 

viii

 


 

:_

 


 

116

 


 

NAVWEPS 00-SOT-80

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Pam

 

124

 


 

Turbojet operating limitations

 

Exhaust gas temperature

 

b&pr~$or

 

stall or surge

 

Compressor inlet air temperature

 

Engine speed

 

Time limitations

 

Thrust augmentation.

 

Afterburner

 

Water injection

 

The gas turbine-propeller

 

combination.

 

Equivalent shaft horsepower

 

Governing requirements

 

Operating limitations

 

performance characteristics

 

THE

 


 

RECIPROCATING

 

ENGINE,

 

. .

 

Operating chatacterlsucs.

 

Operating cycle

 

Brake horsepower

 

Torque, RPM, and BMEP

 

Normal combustion

 

Preignition and detonation

 

Fuel qualities

 

Specific fuel consum tion

 

Effect of altitude an 8 supercharging

 

Effect of humidity

 

Operating limitations.

 

Detonation and preignition

 

Water injection

 

Time limitations

 

Reciprocating loads

 


 

AIRCRAFT

 

Operating

 


 

OF

 


 

characteristics,

 


 

AIRPLANE

 


 

STRAIGHT

 


 

132

 


 

135

 

135

 


 

144

 


 

PROPELLERS

 

145

 


 

Flow patterns

 

Propulsive cficiency

 

Powerplant matching

 

Governing and feathering

 

Operating limitations..

 

ITEMS

 


 

129

 


 

AND

 


 

148

 


 

PERFORMANCE

 


 

LEVEL

 


 

FLIGHT.

 


 

150

 


 

Equilibrium conditions

 

Thrust and power required

 

Thrust and powec available

 

Maximum and minimum speed

 


 

CLIMB

 


 

PERFORMANCE.

 


 

Steady and transient climb.

 

Forces acting on the airplane

 

Climb angle and obstacle clcarancc

 

Rate of climb, primary control of altitude

 

Propeller and jet aircraft

 

Climb performance.

 

Effect of weight and altitude

 

Descending flight

 


 

ix

 


 

150

 

150

 


 

156

 


 

NAWEPS 00-801-8~

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

RANGE

 

PERFORMANCE.

 

General range performance.

 

Specific range, v&city, fuel flbw

 

Specific endurance

 

Cruise control and total range

 

Range, propeller driven airplanes.

 

Aerodynamic conditions

 

Effect of weight and altitude

 

Reciprocating and turboprop airplanes

 

Range, turbojet airplanes.

 

Aerodynamic conditions

 

Effect of weight and altitude

 

Constant altitude and cruise-climb profiles

 

Effect of wind oh ?PY~C........,....................................

 

ENDURANCE

 

PERFORMANCE.

 

General endurance performance..

 

Spxific cndurancc, velocity, fuel flow

 

Effect of altitude op endurance,

 

Propcllcr driven airplanes

 

Turbojet aitplaocs

 


 

:;

 

158

 


 

160

 


 

164

 


 

:.

 


 

168

 

:.

 


 

.

 


 

170

 

170

 


 

:..

 


 

....

 


 

170

 


 

OFF-OPTIMUM

 

RANGE

 

AND ENDURANCE.

 

Reciprocating powered airplane..

 

Turboprop powered airplane,

 

,

 

Turbojet powered airplane...

 

. . I..

 

MANEUVERING

 


 

. ..

 

.

 


 

176

 


 

PERFORMANCE.

 


 

Relationships of turning flight. . . .

 

Steady turn, bank angle and load factor

 

Induced drag

 

Turning performance..

 

Tom radius and turn rate

 

Effect of bank aaglc and velocity

 

Tactical performance,

 

.

 

Maximum lift

 

FhZZF%3:~2:;

 

TAKEOFF

 


 

AND

 


 

172

 

172

 

173

 

175

 


 

.

 


 

.

 


 

.

 


 

176

 


 

178

 


 

. .

 


 

178

 


 

pfOt?l~?CC

 

LANDING

 


 

PERFORMANCE..

 


 

Relationships of accelerated motion.

 

Acceleration, vclocit

 

distance

 

Uniform and nonum,Jarm acceleration

 

Takeoff performance.. . . .

 

Forces acting on the airplane

 

Accelerated motion

 

Factors of technique

 

Factors affecting takeo# performance.

 

Effect of gross weight

 

Rffcct of wind

 

Effect of runway slope

 

F?qxt takeoff vcloclty.

 

Effect of altitude and tempcraturc

 

Handbook data

 

Y

 


 

1132

 


 

.~,

 

.

 


 

182

 


 

164

 


 

.

 


 

187

 


 

NAVWEPS OO-BOT-BO

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Landing performance..

 

Forces acting on the airplane

 

Accclanted motion

 

Factors of technique

 

Factors affecting landing performance.

 

E&t of gross weight

 

Effect of wind

 

Fg;

 

~~~~~~~;mpcntwc

 

ro

 

a

 

Impmtance of handbook performance

 


 

..

 


 

.

 


 

192

 


 

.

 


 

. . .

 


 

data.

 


 

..

 


 

196

 


 

200

 


 

CHAPTER 3. HIGH SPEEDAERODYNAMICS

 

GENERAL

 


 

CONCEPTS

 


 

AND

 


 

SUPERSONIC

 


 

FLOW

 


 

PATTERNS

 


 

...............................

 

COMPRESSIBILITY.

 

........................................

 

Definition of Mach number.

 

Sttbsonic, traasonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. .......

 

Compressible flow conditions .......................................

 

Comparison of compressible and incompressible flow. ...............

 


 

201

 

202

 

204

 

204

 

204

 


 

..................

 

TYPICAL

 

SUPERSONIC

 

FLOW

 

PATTERNS.,

 

Obliqueshockwave

 

................................................

 

Normalshockwave

 

................................................

 

Ex nsionwave ....................................................

 

E t9?

 

ect on velocity, Mach number, density, pressure, energy. .. : ........

 


 

207

 

207

 

207

 

211

 

213

 


 

SECTIONS

 

IN SUPERSONIC

 

FLOW. ............................

 

nowpatterns

 

......................................................

 

..............................................

 

Pressure distribution.

 

Wavedrag .........................................................

 

Location of aerodynamic center. ....................................

 


 

213

 

213

 

213

 

21s

 

21s

 


 

NATURE

 


 

CONFIGURATION

 


 

OF

 


 

EFFECTS

 


 

TRANSONIC

 

AND

 

SUPERSONIC

 

FLIGHT.

 

Critical Mach ntlm~r

 

Shock wave formatton.

 

Shock induced separation..

 

i..

 

Porcedivergence...................................................

 

Phenomena of transonic flight..

 

Phenomena of supersonic Bight..

 


 

.

 

... ...... .. .

 

.

 

.

 


 

TRANSONIC

 

AND

 

SUPERSONIC

 

CONFIGURATIONS.

 

Airfoil sections..

 

.

 

Transonic sections

 

Supctsonic sections

 

Wave drag characteristics

 

Effect of Mach number on airfoil characteristics

 

,.......,.....

 

Plaaform effects.

 

Effect of swcc ack

 

Advantages o p?swcepback

 

Disadvantages of sweepback

 

Effect of nspct ratio and tip shape

 

.

 

.... ....

 

Control surfaces.

 

Powered controls

 

All movable surfaces

 


 

215

 

2 15

 

218

 

$2:

 

218

 

220

 

220

 

220

 


 

226

 


 

236

 


 

NAWEPS 00-801-80

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Supersonic engine inlets.

 

Internal and external comprcsrion inlets

 

Inlet performance and powerplant matching

 

Supersonic configurations.

 


 

AERODYNAMIC

 


 

238

 


 

.

 


 

240

 


 

HEATING.

 


 

Ram temperature rise..

 

_.

 

Effect on structural materials and powerplant

 


 

242

 

242

 

242

 


 

performance.

 


 

CHAPTER 4. STABILITY AND CONTROL

 

DEFINITIONS

 


 

STATIC STABIL .ITY. ...............................................

 

DYNAMIC

 

STAB1 ?LITY ....................................

 

TRIM AND CONTROLLABI ,LITY ..........................

 

AIRPLANE REFERENCE AXES. ...........................

 

LONGITUDINAL

 


 

STABILITY

 


 

AND

 


 

STATIC LONGITUDINAL

 


 

CONTROL

 


 

STABILITY.

 


 

.........................

 


 

.. :,_~. ...... . .... . ...............

 

Generalconsiderations:.

 

Contribution of the component surfaces ..............................

 

Wing

 

Fuselage and nacelles

 

Horizontal tail

 

Power-off stability. ..................................................

 

Powereffects .......................................................

 

Control force stability. .............................................

 

...............................................

 

Maneuveringstability

 

Tailoring control forces. ...........................................

 


 

LONGITUDINAL

 


 

243

 

245

 

247

 

249

 


 

.:..1...

 


 

...

 


 

259

 

259

 

264

 

268

 

270

 


 

CONTROL. ....................................

 


 

275

 

275

 

275

 

277

 


 

Maneuvering control requirement. ..................................

 

Takeoff control requirement. .......................................

 

Landing control requirement. .......................................

 


 

LONGITUDINAL

 


 

DYNAMIC

 


 

STABILITY.

 


 

.....................

 


 

279

 

279

 

281

 


 

Phugoid ...........................................................

 

Short period motions ...............................................

 


 

MODERN

 


 

CONTROL

 


 

250

 

-25?0.

 

253

 


 

SYSTEMS. .................................

 


 

281

 


 

Conventional

 

Boosted

 

Power operated

 

DIRECTIONAL

 


 

STABILITY

 


 

DIRECTIONAL

 


 

AND

 


 

STABILITY.

 


 

CONTROL

 


 

......................................

 


 

.......................................................

 

Defimtuxu

 

Contribution of the airplane components ............................

 

Vertical tail

 

Wing

 

Fuselage and nacelles

 

Power effects

 

..

 

Crawal conditions. ................................................

 


 

DIRECTIONAL

 


 

CONTROL .......................

 


 

Directional control requirements. ..................

 

Adverseyaw .......................................................

 

xii

 


 

...

 


 

284

 

284

 

285

 


 

290

 


 

>................

 


 

290

 


 

................

 


 

291

 

291

 


 

NAVWEPS 00-BOT-80

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Pace

 


 

291

 

294

 

294

 

294

 


 

Spinrecovety..;

 

...................................................

 

Slipstream rotatmn. ................................................

 

Cross wind takeoff and landing. ...................................

 

Asymmetrical power. ...............................................

 

LATERAL

 


 

STABILITY

 


 

LATERAL

 


 

AND

 


 

CONTROL

 


 

...........................................

 


 

STABILITY,

 


 

294

 

295

 


 

Definlttons

 

...........................................................

 


 

CONTRIBUTION

 


 

OF THE AIRPLANE

 


 

COMPONENTS.

 


 

Wing.........~.........~

 

Fuselage and wmg powton,...................................................................................

 

Sweepback .........................................................

 

Vertical tail. ........................................................

 


 

LATERAL

 


 

DYNAMIC

 


 

EFFECTS, ................................

 


 

295

 

298

 

298

 

298

 

298

 

299

 


 

Directional divergence

 

Spiral divergence

 

Dutch roll

 


 

CONTROL

 

.

 

Rolhsg

 

Roliing

 

Critical

 


 

IN ROLL ..............................................

 


 

.

 

motmn of an airplane. ......................................

 

performance, ..............................................

 

requirements. ..............................................

 


 

MISCELLANEOUS

 


 

LANDING

 


 

STABILITY

 


 

300

 

300

 

301

 

305

 


 

PROBLEMS

 


 

GEAR CONFIGURATIONS

 


 

.........................

 


 

305

 


 

Tail wheel type

 

Tricyde type

 

Bicycle type

 


 

SPINS AND

 


 

PROBLEMS OF SPIN RECOVERY ................

 


 

307

 


 

Principal prospin moments

 

Fundamental principle of recovery

 

Effect of configuration

 


 

PITCH-UP.,

 

Definition

 

Contribution

 


 

.........................................................

 


 

313

 


 

of the airplane components

 


 

EFFECTS OF HIGH

 


 

MACH

 


 

NUMBER..

 


 

313

 


 

Longitudinal stability and control

 

Directional stability

 

Dynamic stability and damping

 


 

PILOT INDUCED

 


 

_. 314

 


 

OSCILLATIONS..

 


 

Pilot.control system-airplane coupling

 

High q aed low stick force stability

 


 

ROLL

 


 

315

 


 

COUPLING.

 


 

Inertia and aerodynamic coupling

 

Inertia and wind axes

 

Natural pitch, yaw, and coupled pitch-yaw frequencies

 

Critical roll rates

 

Autorotative rolling

 

Operating limitations

 


 

HELICOPTER

 


 

STABILITY

 


 

AND CONTROL.

 


 

Rotor gyroscopic effects

 

Cyclic and collective pitch

 

Lon itudinal, lateral, and directional

 

Ang f e of attack and velocity stability

 

Dynamic stability

 


 

xiii

 


 

control

 


 

319

 


 

NAVWEPS OO-BOT-80

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 


 

CHAPTER 5. OPERAilNG STRENGTHLIMITATIONS

 

GENERAL

 


 

OEFlNlTlONS

 


 

AND

 


 

STRUCTURAL

 


 

STATIC STRENGTH .._..........

 


 

~.~~~.~

 


 

REQUlREMENTS

 


 

~..~

 


 

Limit load

 

Factor of safety

 

Material properties

 


 

SERVICE LIFE

 


 

328

 


 

Pati e consideration

 

Loa r spectrum attd cumulative damage

 

Creep considerations

 


 

AEROELASTIC

 


 

EFFECTS.

 


 

330

 


 

Stiffness and rigidity

 

AIRCRAFT

 


 

LOADS

 


 

FLIGHT

 


 

AND

 


 

OPERATING

 


 

LOADS-MANEUVERS

 


 

LIMITATIONS

 


 

AND GUSTS.

 


 

Loadfactor.....................................................

 

Maneuvering load factors..

 

Maximum lift capability

 

Effect of gross weight

 

^

 

. ._

 

ClllStlOadtacfors..............,.................................

 

Gust load increment

 

Effect of gust intensity and lift curve slope

 

Effect of wing loading and altitude

 

Effect of overstrea.

 


 

.I

 


 

THE V-n OR V-g DIAGRAM.

 


 

,...

 

,..,

 


 

331

 

331

 

331

 


 

332

 


 

,? 334

 

334

 


 

Effect of weight, configuration;altihtde,

 

and symmetry of Ior-Ang

 

Limit load factors

 

Ultitnute load facvxs

 

Maximum lift capability

 

Limit airspeed

 

Operating env+pe

 

Maneuver?speed and penetration of turbulence

 


 

EFFECT OF HIGH

 


 

SPEED FLIGHT..

 


 

339

 


 

Critical gust

 

Aileron reversal

 

Divergence

 

PIutter

 

Compressibility problems

 


 

LANDING

 


 

AND GROUND

 


 

LOADS.

 


 

343

 


 

Landing load factor

 

Effect of touchdown rate of descent

 

Effect of gross weight

 

Ported landing on unprepared .surfaces

 

EFFECT OF OVERSTRESS

 

ON SERVICE

 

Recognition of overstress?damage

 

Importance of operating limitations

 


 

xiv

 


 

LIFE

 


 

344

 


 

NAVWEPS 00401-80

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 


 

CHAPTER6. APPLICATION OF AERODYNAMICS TO

 

SPECIFICPROBLEMSOF FLYING

 

mrx

 

PRIMARY

 


 

CONTROL

 


 

OF

 


 

AIRSPEED

 


 

AND

 


 

ALTITUDE..

 


 

349

 


 

Angle of attack versus airspeed

 

Rate of cli

 

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