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Neurobiology - Biology 362 - Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #8

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please read and refer to readings designated for this week to answer the questions below.

 

Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #8 covers all required reading and media.

 

There are 20 Multiple Choice questions.

 

ANSWER in the My Tools/Quizzes and Exams for item Knowledge Inventory Eight. Submit only the

 

letter answers by the due date and time.

 


 

Q1. A change in the nervous system and in behavior that occurs as a result of experience an

 

organism undergoes defines __________.

 

A. habituation

 

B. memory

 

C. learning

 

D. conditioning

 

E. instrumental conditioning

 

Q2. Learning research conducted on a sea slug called Aplysia has the advantages of being a

 

neural system that has been extensively studied, having a simple nervous system, and having

 

___________.

 

A. gill retraction reflex

 

B. large neurons with axons one millimeter in diameter

 

C. behavior that suggests consciousness

 

D. a gill and siphon for responsiveness to external stimuli

 


 

Q3. Using the image above, identify the two systems involved in the gill withdrawal reflex in

 

response to a touch to the siphon.

 

A. sensory neuron from the siphon directly to the motor neuron

 

B. sensory neuron from the siphon directly to the excitatory interneuron

 

C. sensory neuron from the head to the facilitating interneuron

 

D. both A and B

 

E. both A and C

 


 

Q4. In Aplysia, a habituated response to a touch to the siphon is primarily due to _________.

 

A. more neurotransmitter release

 

B. increased number of active calcium channels

 

C. reduced sensitivity of the motor neuron to incoming signals

 

D. attenuated signaling (decreased neurotransmitter release) in the sensory neuron of the siphon

 

E. enhanced activity in the excitatory interneuron

 

Q5. Conditioning differs from habituation _________.

 

A. in that conditioning does not require a stimulus

 

B. because conditioning is not a form of learning

 

C. because it requires an association between two stimuli

 

D. in that conditioning does not involve a motor response

 

E. in that habituation occurs after continuous touches to the siphon whereas conditioning

 

does not

 

Q6. For Pavlov's experiments with dog appetitive behavior, it was found that a bell could be paired

 

with meat to elicit a conditioned response. In these experiments, salivation represents the

 

_________ .

 

A. conditioned response CR only

 

B. unconditioned response UR only

 

C. conditioned stimulus CS only

 

D. conditioned stimulus and unconditioned response

 

E. conditioned response and unconditioned response

 

Q7. ___________ makes axon-axonic synapses onto sensory neurons of the siphon in classical

 

conditioning of gill withdrawal to electric shock. HINT: Look for axo-axonic synapses in the image

 

above.

 

A. Sensory neuron from the head

 

B. Facilitating interneuron

 

C. Motor neuron

 

D. Excitatory interneuron

 

E. Sensory neuron from the siphon

 

Q8. ______________ is released at the axon-axonic synapse addressed in Question #7.

 

A. serotonin

 

B. acetylcholine

 

C. dopamine

 

D. glutamate

 

E. GABA

 

Q9. In the experimental paradigm of the gill withdrawal to electric shock, the shock to the tail

 

represents the _____________.

 

A. UR

 

B. US

 

C. CR

 

D. CS

 

Q10. In the experimental paradigm of the gill withdrawal to electric shock to the tail, the CR is

 

__________________________.

 

A. a strong gill withdrawal reflex

 

B. a very weak gill withdrawal reflex

 

C. tail flick

 

D. mantle withdrawal

 

E. mantle extension, as in an escape response

 


 

Q11. ________ is regarded as a key neurotransmitter in mediating associative learning and longterm potentiation (LTP).

 

A. serotonin

 

B. adenyl cyclase

 

C. cAMP

 

D. acetylcholine

 

E. glutamate

 

Q12. LTP is considered a phenomenon that underlies memory formation which relies on

 

___________ to form and strengthen synaptic connections.

 

A. protein synthesis

 

B. neurotransmitter synthesis

 

C. myelination

 

D. calcium

 

E. phospholipid synthesis

 

Q13. Preventing the synthesis of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been found

 

to ________.

 

A. prevent myelination

 

B. enhance serotonin release

 

C. abolish long term memory

 

D. enhance long-term potentiation

 

For Questions 14-16, reference weekly reading The Brain from Top to Bottom Memory and

 

Learning (webpage is Beginner-level) http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_07/d_07_p/d_07_p_tra/

 

d_07_p_tra.html

 

Q14. _______ memory is not a type of memory.

 

A. Sensory

 

B. Short-term

 

C. Long-term

 

D. Receptive

 

Q15. ________ memory is expressed by means other than words.

 

A. Explicit

 

B. Declarative

 

C. Long-term

 

D. Sensory

 

E. Implicit

 

Q16. Read through the Intermediate level for Memory at http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_07/

 

i_07_p/i_07_p_tra/i_07_p_tra.html and indicate which of the following terms means the process of

 

rehearsing information to allow it to move from short-term memory to long-term, permanent

 

memory.

 

A. Working memory

 

B. Rehearsal memory

 

C. Transient memory

 

D. Consolidating memory

 

E. Procedural memory

 


 

For Questions 17-22, reference weekly multimedia http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/mappingmemory-brain (about 59 minutes; Localization of Brain Function 0-34 minutes; Memory and

 

Learning 34-59 minutes)

 

Q17. Which statement below best distinguishes the approaches taken by Gall and Broca to

 

localization of function in the brain?

 

A. External skull bumps versus damage to internal brain convolutions and gyri

 

B. Elderly brains versus youthful brains

 

C. Mental disorders versus normal social behavior

 

D. Size of the entire skull versus size of just the frontal bone of the skull

 

Q18. When Wilder Penfield stimulated , patients undergoing neurosurgery would describe detailed

 

memories as if they were re-living the experience.

 

A. Broca's area

 

B. basal ganglia

 

C. hippocampus

 

D. thalamus

 

E. Wernicke's area

 

Q19. Famous short-term memory loss patient H.M. had undergone surgery for intractable epilepsy

 

that removed the medial aspects of the ___________ bilaterally.

 

A. hypothalamus

 

B. thalamus

 

C. globus pallidus (of basal ganglia)

 

D. hippocampus (in temporal lobe)

 

E. prefrontal cortex

 

Q20. Brenda Milner's research and observation of patient H.M. revealed that long-term memories

 

are most likely stored ________.

 

A. some place other than medial hippocampus

 

B. in medial hippocampus

 

C. in hypothalamus

 

D. posteriors aspects of temporal lobe

 

E. in lateral hippocampus

 

Q21. Which of the following memories were *not* intact for patient H.M.?

 

A. memories prior to surgery

 

B. short-term declarative memories that are rehearsed

 

C. long-term declarative memories of new experiences

 

D. procedural memory

 

Q22. Implicit memories are thought to be stored in _______ while explicit memories are thought to

 

be stored in ________.

 

A. cerebellum; hippocampus

 

B. basal ganglia; hippocampus

 

C. cerebellum; amygdala

 

D. cerebellum; prefrontal cortex

 

E. basal ganglia; prefrontal cortex

 

For Questions 23-25, reference weekly multimedia http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/memoriesare-made (about 59 minutes)

 

Q23.Which two ?interesting things? of items I-V below does Dr. Eric Kandel state are learned from

 

the experiments on sensitization in Aplysia.

 

I. Developmental programs specify architecture of behavior but they do not specify the functional strength

 

of that architecture

 

II. Protein synthesis is required for short-term learning

 


 

III. Sensitization is a form of conditioning but is not a form of learning

 

IV. Synapses play a double function; they are means of communication and they are a means of learning

 

V. Electric shock to the tail modulates sensory drive to the motor output but does not

 

influence neurotransmitter release from the sensory neuron

 

A. I and II

 

B. I and III

 

C. I and IV

 

D. II and III

 

E. II and IV

 

F. II and V

 

G. III and IV

 

H. III and V

 

Q24. Tail shock leads to serotonin release onto the presynaptic axon terminal of siphon sensory

 

neurons in Aplysia. Ultimately, serotonin results in activation of the catalytic subunit of cAMPdependent protein kinase (PKA) which _________ calcium ion channels in the presynaptic

 

terminal.

 

A. inhibits

 

B. phosphorylates

 

C. synthesizes

 

D. changes the structure of

 

E. blocks

 

Q25. Long-term memory in the tail shock Aplysia model of sensitization requires ___________.

 

A. second messenger systems to alter gene expression

 

B. enhanced flow of potassium through potassium channels

 

C. release of glutamate

 

D. interaction of cytosolic signaling molecules (e.g. catalytic PKA subunits) with transcription

 

factors in the nucleus

 

E. both B and C

 

F. both A and D

 

G. both A and C

 


 

 

Paper#9209285 | Written in 27-Jul-2016

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