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Neurobiology - Biology 362 - Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #8


INSTRUCTIONS: Please read and refer to readings designated for this week to answer the questions below.


Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #8 covers all required reading and media.


There are 20 Multiple Choice questions.


ANSWER in the My Tools/Quizzes and Exams for item Knowledge Inventory Eight. Submit only the


letter answers by the due date and time.



Q1. A change in the nervous system and in behavior that occurs as a result of experience an


organism undergoes defines __________.


A. habituation


B. memory


C. learning


D. conditioning


E. instrumental conditioning


Q2. Learning research conducted on a sea slug called Aplysia has the advantages of being a


neural system that has been extensively studied, having a simple nervous system, and having




A. gill retraction reflex


B. large neurons with axons one millimeter in diameter


C. behavior that suggests consciousness


D. a gill and siphon for responsiveness to external stimuli



Q3. Using the image above, identify the two systems involved in the gill withdrawal reflex in


response to a touch to the siphon.


A. sensory neuron from the siphon directly to the motor neuron


B. sensory neuron from the siphon directly to the excitatory interneuron


C. sensory neuron from the head to the facilitating interneuron


D. both A and B


E. both A and C



Q4. In Aplysia, a habituated response to a touch to the siphon is primarily due to _________.


A. more neurotransmitter release


B. increased number of active calcium channels


C. reduced sensitivity of the motor neuron to incoming signals


D. attenuated signaling (decreased neurotransmitter release) in the sensory neuron of the siphon


E. enhanced activity in the excitatory interneuron


Q5. Conditioning differs from habituation _________.


A. in that conditioning does not require a stimulus


B. because conditioning is not a form of learning


C. because it requires an association between two stimuli


D. in that conditioning does not involve a motor response


E. in that habituation occurs after continuous touches to the siphon whereas conditioning


does not


Q6. For Pavlov's experiments with dog appetitive behavior, it was found that a bell could be paired


with meat to elicit a conditioned response. In these experiments, salivation represents the


_________ .


A. conditioned response CR only


B. unconditioned response UR only


C. conditioned stimulus CS only


D. conditioned stimulus and unconditioned response


E. conditioned response and unconditioned response


Q7. ___________ makes axon-axonic synapses onto sensory neurons of the siphon in classical


conditioning of gill withdrawal to electric shock. HINT: Look for axo-axonic synapses in the image




A. Sensory neuron from the head


B. Facilitating interneuron


C. Motor neuron


D. Excitatory interneuron


E. Sensory neuron from the siphon


Q8. ______________ is released at the axon-axonic synapse addressed in Question #7.


A. serotonin


B. acetylcholine


C. dopamine


D. glutamate




Q9. In the experimental paradigm of the gill withdrawal to electric shock, the shock to the tail


represents the _____________.










Q10. In the experimental paradigm of the gill withdrawal to electric shock to the tail, the CR is




A. a strong gill withdrawal reflex


B. a very weak gill withdrawal reflex


C. tail flick


D. mantle withdrawal


E. mantle extension, as in an escape response



Q11. ________ is regarded as a key neurotransmitter in mediating associative learning and longterm potentiation (LTP).


A. serotonin


B. adenyl cyclase




D. acetylcholine


E. glutamate


Q12. LTP is considered a phenomenon that underlies memory formation which relies on


___________ to form and strengthen synaptic connections.


A. protein synthesis


B. neurotransmitter synthesis


C. myelination


D. calcium


E. phospholipid synthesis


Q13. Preventing the synthesis of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been found


to ________.


A. prevent myelination


B. enhance serotonin release


C. abolish long term memory


D. enhance long-term potentiation


For Questions 14-16, reference weekly reading The Brain from Top to Bottom Memory and


Learning (webpage is Beginner-level)




Q14. _______ memory is not a type of memory.


A. Sensory


B. Short-term


C. Long-term


D. Receptive


Q15. ________ memory is expressed by means other than words.


A. Explicit


B. Declarative


C. Long-term


D. Sensory


E. Implicit


Q16. Read through the Intermediate level for Memory at


i_07_p/i_07_p_tra/i_07_p_tra.html and indicate which of the following terms means the process of


rehearsing information to allow it to move from short-term memory to long-term, permanent




A. Working memory


B. Rehearsal memory


C. Transient memory


D. Consolidating memory


E. Procedural memory



For Questions 17-22, reference weekly multimedia (about 59 minutes; Localization of Brain Function 0-34 minutes; Memory and


Learning 34-59 minutes)


Q17. Which statement below best distinguishes the approaches taken by Gall and Broca to


localization of function in the brain?


A. External skull bumps versus damage to internal brain convolutions and gyri


B. Elderly brains versus youthful brains


C. Mental disorders versus normal social behavior


D. Size of the entire skull versus size of just the frontal bone of the skull


Q18. When Wilder Penfield stimulated , patients undergoing neurosurgery would describe detailed


memories as if they were re-living the experience.


A. Broca's area


B. basal ganglia


C. hippocampus


D. thalamus


E. Wernicke's area


Q19. Famous short-term memory loss patient H.M. had undergone surgery for intractable epilepsy


that removed the medial aspects of the ___________ bilaterally.


A. hypothalamus


B. thalamus


C. globus pallidus (of basal ganglia)


D. hippocampus (in temporal lobe)


E. prefrontal cortex


Q20. Brenda Milner's research and observation of patient H.M. revealed that long-term memories


are most likely stored ________.


A. some place other than medial hippocampus


B. in medial hippocampus


C. in hypothalamus


D. posteriors aspects of temporal lobe


E. in lateral hippocampus


Q21. Which of the following memories were *not* intact for patient H.M.?


A. memories prior to surgery


B. short-term declarative memories that are rehearsed


C. long-term declarative memories of new experiences


D. procedural memory


Q22. Implicit memories are thought to be stored in _______ while explicit memories are thought to


be stored in ________.


A. cerebellum; hippocampus


B. basal ganglia; hippocampus


C. cerebellum; amygdala


D. cerebellum; prefrontal cortex


E. basal ganglia; prefrontal cortex


For Questions 23-25, reference weekly multimedia (about 59 minutes)


Q23.Which two ?interesting things? of items I-V below does Dr. Eric Kandel state are learned from


the experiments on sensitization in Aplysia.


I. Developmental programs specify architecture of behavior but they do not specify the functional strength


of that architecture


II. Protein synthesis is required for short-term learning



III. Sensitization is a form of conditioning but is not a form of learning


IV. Synapses play a double function; they are means of communication and they are a means of learning


V. Electric shock to the tail modulates sensory drive to the motor output but does not


influence neurotransmitter release from the sensory neuron


A. I and II


B. I and III


C. I and IV


D. II and III


E. II and IV


F. II and V


G. III and IV


H. III and V


Q24. Tail shock leads to serotonin release onto the presynaptic axon terminal of siphon sensory


neurons in Aplysia. Ultimately, serotonin results in activation of the catalytic subunit of cAMPdependent protein kinase (PKA) which _________ calcium ion channels in the presynaptic




A. inhibits


B. phosphorylates


C. synthesizes


D. changes the structure of


E. blocks


Q25. Long-term memory in the tail shock Aplysia model of sensitization requires ___________.


A. second messenger systems to alter gene expression


B. enhanced flow of potassium through potassium channels


C. release of glutamate


D. interaction of cytosolic signaling molecules (e.g. catalytic PKA subunits) with transcription


factors in the nucleus


E. both B and C


F. both A and D


G. both A and C




Paper#9209285 | Written in 27-Jul-2016

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