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Neurobiology - Biology 362 - Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #8
INSTRUCTIONS: Please read and refer to readings designated for this week to answer the questions below.
Knowledge Inventory (Quiz) #8 covers all required reading and media.
There are 20 Multiple Choice questions.
ANSWER in the My Tools/Quizzes and Exams for item Knowledge Inventory Eight. Submit only the
letter answers by the due date and time.
Q1. A change in the nervous system and in behavior that occurs as a result of experience an
organism undergoes defines __________.
E. instrumental conditioning
Q2. Learning research conducted on a sea slug called Aplysia has the advantages of being a
neural system that has been extensively studied, having a simple nervous system, and having
A. gill retraction reflex
B. large neurons with axons one millimeter in diameter
C. behavior that suggests consciousness
D. a gill and siphon for responsiveness to external stimuli
Q3. Using the image above, identify the two systems involved in the gill withdrawal reflex in
response to a touch to the siphon.
A. sensory neuron from the siphon directly to the motor neuron
B. sensory neuron from the siphon directly to the excitatory interneuron
C. sensory neuron from the head to the facilitating interneuron
D. both A and B
E. both A and C
Q4. In Aplysia, a habituated response to a touch to the siphon is primarily due to _________.
A. more neurotransmitter release
B. increased number of active calcium channels
C. reduced sensitivity of the motor neuron to incoming signals
D. attenuated signaling (decreased neurotransmitter release) in the sensory neuron of the siphon
E. enhanced activity in the excitatory interneuron
Q5. Conditioning differs from habituation _________.
A. in that conditioning does not require a stimulus
B. because conditioning is not a form of learning
C. because it requires an association between two stimuli
D. in that conditioning does not involve a motor response
E. in that habituation occurs after continuous touches to the siphon whereas conditioning
Q6. For Pavlov's experiments with dog appetitive behavior, it was found that a bell could be paired
with meat to elicit a conditioned response. In these experiments, salivation represents the
A. conditioned response CR only
B. unconditioned response UR only
C. conditioned stimulus CS only
D. conditioned stimulus and unconditioned response
E. conditioned response and unconditioned response
Q7. ___________ makes axon-axonic synapses onto sensory neurons of the siphon in classical
conditioning of gill withdrawal to electric shock. HINT: Look for axo-axonic synapses in the image
A. Sensory neuron from the head
B. Facilitating interneuron
C. Motor neuron
D. Excitatory interneuron
E. Sensory neuron from the siphon
Q8. ______________ is released at the axon-axonic synapse addressed in Question #7.
Q9. In the experimental paradigm of the gill withdrawal to electric shock, the shock to the tail
represents the _____________.
Q10. In the experimental paradigm of the gill withdrawal to electric shock to the tail, the CR is
A. a strong gill withdrawal reflex
B. a very weak gill withdrawal reflex
C. tail flick
D. mantle withdrawal
E. mantle extension, as in an escape response
Q11. ________ is regarded as a key neurotransmitter in mediating associative learning and longterm potentiation (LTP).
B. adenyl cyclase
Q12. LTP is considered a phenomenon that underlies memory formation which relies on
___________ to form and strengthen synaptic connections.
A. protein synthesis
B. neurotransmitter synthesis
E. phospholipid synthesis
Q13. Preventing the synthesis of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been found
A. prevent myelination
B. enhance serotonin release
C. abolish long term memory
D. enhance long-term potentiation
For Questions 14-16, reference weekly reading The Brain from Top to Bottom Memory and
Learning (webpage is Beginner-level) http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_07/d_07_p/d_07_p_tra/
Q14. _______ memory is not a type of memory.
Q15. ________ memory is expressed by means other than words.
Q16. Read through the Intermediate level for Memory at http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_07/
i_07_p/i_07_p_tra/i_07_p_tra.html and indicate which of the following terms means the process of
rehearsing information to allow it to move from short-term memory to long-term, permanent
A. Working memory
B. Rehearsal memory
C. Transient memory
D. Consolidating memory
E. Procedural memory
For Questions 17-22, reference weekly multimedia http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/mappingmemory-brain (about 59 minutes; Localization of Brain Function 0-34 minutes; Memory and
Learning 34-59 minutes)
Q17. Which statement below best distinguishes the approaches taken by Gall and Broca to
localization of function in the brain?
A. External skull bumps versus damage to internal brain convolutions and gyri
B. Elderly brains versus youthful brains
C. Mental disorders versus normal social behavior
D. Size of the entire skull versus size of just the frontal bone of the skull
Q18. When Wilder Penfield stimulated , patients undergoing neurosurgery would describe detailed
memories as if they were re-living the experience.
A. Broca's area
B. basal ganglia
E. Wernicke's area
Q19. Famous short-term memory loss patient H.M. had undergone surgery for intractable epilepsy
that removed the medial aspects of the ___________ bilaterally.
C. globus pallidus (of basal ganglia)
D. hippocampus (in temporal lobe)
E. prefrontal cortex
Q20. Brenda Milner's research and observation of patient H.M. revealed that long-term memories
are most likely stored ________.
A. some place other than medial hippocampus
B. in medial hippocampus
C. in hypothalamus
D. posteriors aspects of temporal lobe
E. in lateral hippocampus
Q21. Which of the following memories were *not* intact for patient H.M.?
A. memories prior to surgery
B. short-term declarative memories that are rehearsed
C. long-term declarative memories of new experiences
D. procedural memory
Q22. Implicit memories are thought to be stored in _______ while explicit memories are thought to
be stored in ________.
A. cerebellum; hippocampus
B. basal ganglia; hippocampus
C. cerebellum; amygdala
D. cerebellum; prefrontal cortex
E. basal ganglia; prefrontal cortex
For Questions 23-25, reference weekly multimedia http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/memoriesare-made (about 59 minutes)
Q23.Which two ?interesting things? of items I-V below does Dr. Eric Kandel state are learned from
the experiments on sensitization in Aplysia.
I. Developmental programs specify architecture of behavior but they do not specify the functional strength
of that architecture
II. Protein synthesis is required for short-term learning
III. Sensitization is a form of conditioning but is not a form of learning
IV. Synapses play a double function; they are means of communication and they are a means of learning
V. Electric shock to the tail modulates sensory drive to the motor output but does not
influence neurotransmitter release from the sensory neuron
A. I and II
B. I and III
C. I and IV
D. II and III
E. II and IV
F. II and V
G. III and IV
H. III and V
Q24. Tail shock leads to serotonin release onto the presynaptic axon terminal of siphon sensory
neurons in Aplysia. Ultimately, serotonin results in activation of the catalytic subunit of cAMPdependent protein kinase (PKA) which _________ calcium ion channels in the presynaptic
D. changes the structure of
Q25. Long-term memory in the tail shock Aplysia model of sensitization requires ___________.
A. second messenger systems to alter gene expression
B. enhanced flow of potassium through potassium channels
C. release of glutamate
D. interaction of cytosolic signaling molecules (e.g. catalytic PKA subunits) with transcription
factors in the nucleus
E. both B and C
F. both A and D
G. both A and C
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